On the UN's 75th anniversary, commemorate UN war fighters
Somewhere in a storage room, I've a World War II submarine recognition pamphlet framed to display its intriguing title.
Published circa 1943, the pamphlet is no frills -- black ink submarine silhouettes and captions on white paper. The silhouettes depict U.S., British Commonwealth, Free French and Soviet Union subs, and, as I recall, a Dutch and a Greek sub as well. The Netherlands, Greece and France had been defeated, but some ships escaped to fight for their "free governments in exile."
The document's title: "United Nations Submarines."
They were U.N. subs, not U.S and Allied subs, and it had a 1943/44 pub date, not 1945, the year the U.N. organization was established, according to those now commemorating its 75th anniversary.
Dates aren't the issue. The point is this: A military weapons pamphlet labeled "U.N." reinforced a strategic political message then-U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt thought had warfighting value. FDR first publicly used the U.N. nom de guerre on Jan. 1, 1942, in his "Declaration by United Nations," a statement signed by delegates from 26 countries committed to waging war against the Berlin-Tokyo-Rome Axis. FDR conceived of the "United Nations" as a political organizing tool that established an incorporative identity for a multilateral coalition that only excluded enemies like Imperial Japan, fascist Italy and Nazi Germany.
The U.S. was FDR's "lead nation." United States, United Nations? FDR admired the League of Nations concept, but its failure was obvious.
In April 1945, as the war in Europe concluded, the United Nations Conference on International Organization convened in San Francisco to write an organizational charter, which nations began signing in June. On Oct. 24, 1945, the same day the Soviet Union signed the charter -- the U.N. as we know it was established.
The warfighting U.N. had transformed into an international peacekeeping organization and a forum for mediating conflicts between or among nations.
But did it really move from war-making to peacekeeping?
In June 1950, the U.N. authorized combat forces under the U.N. flag (but led by the U.S.) to halt North Korea's invasion of South Korea. A United Nations Command still remains in South Korea.