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Does less TV time lower your risk for dementia?

Andrew E. Budson, M.D., Harvard Health Blog on

Published in Health & Fitness

The researchers examined baseline participant performance on several different cognitive tests, including those measuring:

Five years later, many participants repeated certain tests. Depending on the test, the number of participants evaluated ranged from 12,091 to 114,373. The results of this study were clear. First, at baseline, more television viewing time was linked with worse cognitive function across all cognitive tests.

More importantly, television viewing time was also linked with a decline in cognitive function five years later for all cognitive tests. Although this type of study cannot prove that television viewing caused the cognitive decline, it suggests that it does.

Further, the type of sedentary activity chosen mattered. Both driving and television were linked to worse cognitive function. But computer use was actually associated with better cognitive function at baseline, and a lower likelihood of cognitive decline over the five-year study.

Television viewing and dementia

In 2022, researchers analyzed this same UK Biobank sample with another question in mind: Would time spent watching television versus using a computer result in different risks of developing dementia over time?

Their analyses included 146,651 people from the UK Biobank, ages 60 and older. At the start of the study, none had been diagnosed with dementia.

Over 12 years, on average, 3,507 participants (2.4%) were diagnosed with dementia. Importantly, after controlling for participant physical activity:

 

These changes in risk were not small. Those who watched the most television daily — more than four hours — were 24% more likely to develop dementia. Those who used computers interactively (not passively streaming) more than one hour daily as a leisure activity were 15% less likely to develop dementia.

Studies like these can only note links between behaviors and outcomes. It’s always possible that the causation works the other way around. In other words, it’s possible that people who were beginning to develop dementia started to watch television more and use the computer less. The only way to know for sure would be to randomly assign people to watch specific numbers of hours of television each day while keeping the amount of exercise everyone did the same. That study is unlikely to happen.

The bottom line

If you watch more than one hour of TV daily, my recommendation is to turn it off and do activities that we know are good for your brain. Try physical exercise, using the computer, doing crossword puzzles, dancing and listening to music, and participating in social and other cognitively stimulating activities.

(Andrew E. Budson, M.D. is a contributor to Harvard Health Publications and an Editorial Advisory Board member for Harvard Health Publishing.)

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