BERLIN -- Germany marked the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall on Saturday with a relatively subdued round of events dedicated to one of the most defining moments in modern European history.
The events mark the culmination of a week of celebrations of Nov. 9, 1989, when East German authorities surprised the world by suddenly opening the hated Berlin Wall following unprecedented mass demonstrations.
But the celebrations appeared more reflective and low key than at previous anniversaries, with this year's events across Germany overshadowed by a brittle mood in Europe, in part as a result of the threat posed by the rise of populism.
Chancellor Angela Merkel said Nov. 9 represented the "happiness and unhappiness of moments in history" with the date also echoing some of the dark chapters in Germany's past.
Merkel said Nov. 9, when the Nazis also unleashed a pogrom against Germany's Jewish community in 1938 and was a key date in Hitler's early attempts to grab power in 1923, was also "a reminder that we must stand up to hate, racism and anti-Semitism."
"It reminds us that human rights cannot be taken for granted," said the chancellor, who grew up in the communist east as the daughter of a pastor. She also laid a candle at a memorial for those killed trying to escape the east.
Ceremonies are also being held on Saturday to mark the horrors of what became known as the Night of Broken Glass, or Kristallnacht, when Jews, Jewish shops, properties and homes were attacked by Nazis in 1938.
German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier is to preside over a pop and classical music concert at Berlin's historic Brandenburg Gate. The Staatskapelle Orchestra, under its musical director Daniel Barenboim, is to perform Beethoven's fifth symphony -- also known as the "Schicksals-Sinfonie," or "destiny symphony" -- at the concert.
The presidents of Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia -- whose nations helped to pave the way for the breaching of the Berlin Wall by breaking away from Moscow and shifting towards Western-style democracy -- also attended Saturday's formal ceremonies.
However, the leaders of Britain, France, Russia and the United States, who had been part of the more ambitious and grander anniversary program a decade ago, were not present this year.