With Whiteside limited to 13 minutes in the first half, despite playing the half without a foul, the Heat were outscored 24-14 in the paint over the first two periods and down 49-37 at the intermission.
Utah closed the second period on a 20-4 run.
The Heat scored just 12 points on 3 of 19 shooting in the second period, with only Tyler Johnson, with 10 points, in double figures at that stage.
The Jazz, by contrast, shot 5 of 5 on 3-pointers in the second quarter.
The Heat had six total assists and nine turnovers at halftime.
Spoelstra lifted Whiteside five minutes into the game amid the Heat's 4-of-13 start from the field.
After falling behind by five in the opening period, the Heat then went up by five, before going into the second period ahead 25-22.
Spoelstra stayed with Justise Winslow as his starting power forward, despite the considerable height and weight advantage of the Jazz's Derrick Favors.
The Heat starting lineup again was rounded out by Dragic, Waiters, Josh Richardson and Whiteside.
The Heat had Tyler Johnson back, after he missed Wednesday's victory over the Phoenix Suns due to illness. Johnson converted all three of his shots in a seven-point first quarter.