On this date in history:
In 490 B.C., the Greeks defeated the Persians at Marathon. A Greek soldier named Phidippides ran more than 26 miles to tell Athenians of the victory and died after his announcement. His feat provided the model for the modern marathon race.
In 1892, Mansfield University was the home team for the first night football game. The contest at Smythe Park in Mansfield, Pa., was called off at halftime because the electrical lighting was inadequate.
In 1920, in baseball's biggest scandal, a grand jury indicted eight Chicago White Sox players for throwing the 1919 World Series with the Cincinnati Reds.
In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin.
In 1938, Adolf Hitler called a four-power conference in Munich to discuss the Czechoslovak crisis, postponing the German army's march into Sudetenland.
In 1958, France adopted a new Constitution written by Michel Debre and championed by former President Charles de Gaulle.
In 1982, the first reports appeared of deaths in the Chicago area from Extra-strength Tylenol capsules laced with cyanide. Seven people died and the unsolved case resulted in tamper-proof packaging for consumer products.
In 1987, a federal appeals court declared Boston public schools officially desegregated after a 13-year effort.
In 1989, former Philippine dictator Ferdinand Marcos died in exile in Hawaii.
In 1992, a Pakistani jetliner carrying 167 people crashed into a hill southeast of Kathmandu, Nepal, killing all aboard.
In 1994, 852 people died after a ferry, the MS Estonia, traveling from Estonia to Sweden capsized and sank in stormy weather off the coast of Finland.
In 2008, U.S. congressional negotiators and Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson agreed on a $700 billion banking industry bailout plan. It gave the Treasury Department unprecedented authority, including the ability to buy a range of troubled financial assets.
In 2009, Iran said it tested long-range missiles, one of which had a range of 1,250 miles. Observers quickly listed many places within striking distance of such a missile, including Israel, U.S. bases in the Persian Gulf and parts of Europe.
In 2014, tens of thousands of pro-democracy protesters in Hong Kong, members of the Occupy Central movement, clashed with riot police resulting in 26 injuries and 78 arrests.
In 2018, a 7.5-magnitude earthquake struck near the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, triggering a tsunami that killed more than 1,500 people.
In 2020, Johns Hopkins University said that 1 million people worldwide had died from COVID-19 about 9 months after the virus was first reported in China.
In 2022, Hurricane Ian made landfall in southwest Florida with 155 mph sustained winds. The storm ultimately led to more than 160 deaths and caused more than $113 billion in damage across several countries.
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