On this date in history:
In 1804, Napoleon crowned himself emperor of France.
In 1823, during his annual address to the U.S. Congress, President James Monroe proclaimed a new U.S. foreign policy initiative that became known as the Monroe Doctrine.
In 1859, abolitionist John Brown was hanged for his raid on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, W.Va.
In 1927, the Model A Ford was introduced as the successor to the Model T. The price of a Model A roadster was $395.
In 1942, the Atomic Age was born when scientists demonstrated the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction at a laboratory below the stands at the University of Chicago football stadium.
In 1954, the U.S. Senate voted 65 to 22 to condemn Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy, R-Wis., for conduct unbecoming a senator. The condemnation, which was equivalent to a censure, related to McCarthy's controversial investigation of alleged communists in the U.S. government, military and civilian society.
In 1961, Fidel Castro disclosed he was a communist, acknowledging he concealed the fact until he solidified his hold on Cuba.
In 1982, retired dentist Barney Clark, 62, became the first person to receive a permanent artificial heart. He survived 112 days.
In 1990, Aaron Copland, the dean of American music, died at age 90 and actor Bob Cummings died at age 80.
In 1993, Colombian drug trafficker Pablo Escobar was killed in a shootout with police and soldiers in the Colombian city of Medellin.
In 2001, U.S. forces in Afghanistan captured John Walker Lindh, 20, a U.S. citizen from San Anselmo, Calif., found fighting with the Taliban.
In 2001, energy company Enron filed for bankruptcy, sparking one of the biggest corporate scandals in U.S. history. The Houston-based company was found to have fraudulent accounting practices.
In 2007, Russian President Vladimir Putin's party dominated parliamentary elections. Putin, who couldn't seek a third consecutive term, named his successor and became prime minister the following year. (Putin became president again in 2012.)
In 2012, parts of a tunnel collapsed on the Chuo Expressway about 50 miles west of Tokyo, killing nine people, injuring two and trapping at least 30 vehicles. Officials said aging ceiling bolts may have caused the collapse.
In 2015, Syed Farook and his wife Tashfeen Malik, attacked a social services facility in Southern California killing 14 before leading police in a running gun battle in which they were killed.
In 2016, a fire broke out an Oakland, Calif., warehouse killing 36 people. The warehouse, which was being used for artist studios and dwellings, was hosting a concert at the time of the fire.