In 1811, the first steam-powered ferry in the world started its run between New York City and Hoboken, N.J.
In 1868, Thomas Alva Edison filed papers for his first invention: an electrical vote recorder to rapidly tabulate floor votes in the U.S. Congress. Members of Congress rejected it.
In 1950, the Federal Communications Commission issued to CBS the first license to broadcast color television.
In 1962, Pope John XXIII opened the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
In 1975, Saturday Night Live premiered with George Carlin as host and musicians Janis Ian and Billy Preston on the bill.
In 1984, financier Marc Rich agreed to pay the U.S. government nearly $200 million, biggest tax fraud penalty in American history.
Also in 1984, Kathryn Sullivan, flying into orbit abroad the space shuttle Challenger, became the first American woman to walk in space.
In 1994, the Pentagon reported that Iraqi troops were withdrawing from the Iraq-Kuwait border. Their deployment had brought the U.S. Navy and Marines to the Persian Gulf less than a week earlier.
In 1996, the Nobel Peace Prize went to Jose Ramos-Harta and Carlos Ximenes Belo, who worked for freedom for Timor-Leste, where famine and repression had killed one-third of the population.
In 2002, Congress gave U.S. President George W. Bush its backing for using military force against Iraq.