The vessels are small and ceramic. Some resemble tiny teapots, others look like small pipes, and a few are sculpted into whimsical animal shapes with a little spout on the backside.
When they were discovered in ancient cemeteries scattered across Europe, some archaeologists wondered if they were used to feed the sick or the elderly. But because they were often buried in graves alongside infants, most experts agreed that the vessels likely served a different purpose entirely:
Call them prehistoric baby bottles.
Now, a new chemical analysis of three of these ancient containers provides further evidence that the vessels were indeed used to feed milk from cows, sheep or goats to human babies.
"People have known about these containers for a long time and assumed they were baby bottles, but nobody had done a thorough analysis on them," said Julie Dunne, a chemist at the University of Bristol in England, who led the work. "What I liked about this study is that it gave us a nice, close connection to parents of the past.
Dunne works in the university's Organic Geochemistry Unit, a research group that has chemically analyzed roughly 10,000 shards of pottery from around the world to help archaeologists better understand what foods and other materials the artifacts once contained.
Their work has revealed that lipids, the building blocks of fats, can survive for thousands of years.
"What we know from years of experimental work is that fats absorb into the ceramic matrix of the vessel and are often preserved there," Dunne said. "Because of that, lipids do survive in about 80% of the assemblages we've looked at."
In the new study, Dunne and her colleagues collected samples from three ceramic baby bottles that had been found next to infants in ancient German burial sites. Two of the bottles came from a cemetery complex that scientists believe was in use between 800 and 450 BC; the other bottle was found in a site dated to 1200 to 800 BC. (The earliest-known ceramic baby bottles have been dated to about 5,000 BC.
The researchers had been looking for vessels that had wide openings, so they would be easier to work with. Still, Dunne said that collecting samples from the bottles was a nerve-racking experience.