In 1497, the Bonfire of the Vanities in Florence, Italy, took place when followers of Girolamo Savonarola burned thousands of books, art and cosmetics.
In 1795, States ratified the U.S. Constitution's 11th Amendment, which outlines the power of the federal judiciary.
In 1898, Emile Zola was tried for libel following publication of J'Accuse.
In 1904, a massive fire, possibly started by a discarded cigarette, struck Baltimore, burning for 31 hours and destroying an 80-block downtown area. Miraculously no lives or homes were lost.
In 1940, British railroads were nationalized.
In 1956, Autherine Lucy, the first black person admitted to the University of Alabama, was expelled after she accused school officials of conspiring in the riots that accompanied her court-ordered enrollment.
In 1964, the Beatles arrived in the United States for the first time and immediately set off a frantic wave of Beatlemania.
In 1973, the U.S. Senate voted to set up a committee to investigate the break-in at the Democratic National Headquarters in Washington's Watergate complex.
In 1984, two U.S. shuttle astronauts made the first untethered space walk.
In 1986, both Ferdinand Marcos and challenger Corazon Aquino claimed victory in the Philippine presidential election.