In 1377, 2,000 people in Cesena, Italy, were killed by papal troops in what became known as the Cesena Bloodbath.
In 1690, Massachusetts Colony issued the first paper money in America.
In 1783, Spain recognized the independence of the United States from Great Britain.
In 1870, the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, decreeing that the right to vote shall not be denied on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude.
In 1913, the 16th Amendment, allowing establishment of an income tax, became part of the U.S. Constitution after ratification by Wyoming.
In 1917, the United States broke off diplomatic relations with Germany after a German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare.
In 1924, Woodrow Wilson, the 28th president of the United States, died in Washington at the age of 67.
In 1959, singers Buddy Holly, J.P. The Big Bopper Richardson and Ritchie Valens were killed in a plane crash near Mason City, Iowa.
In 1966, the Soviet Union accomplished the first controlled landing on the moon when the unmanned spacecraft Lunik 9 touched down on the Ocean of Storms.
In 1973, U.S. President Richard Nixon signed into law the Endangered Species Act.