Amanda Bacon's eating disorder was growing worse. She had lost 60% of her body weight and was consuming about 100 calories a day.
But that wasn't sick enough for her Medicaid managed-care company to cover an inpatient treatment program. She was told in 2017 that she would have to weigh 10 pounds less -- putting her at 5-foot-7 and 90 pounds -- or be admitted to a psychiatric unit.
"I remember thinking, 'I'm going to die,'" the Las Cruces, N.M., resident recalled recently.
Eventually, Bacon, now 35, switched to a plan that paid for treatment, although she said it was still tedious to get services approved.
Many patients like Bacon struggle to get insurance coverage for their mental health treatment, even though two federal laws were designed to bring parity between mental and physical health care coverage. Recent studies and a legal case suggest serious disparities remain.
The 2008 Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act required large group health plans that provide benefits for mental health to put that coverage on an equal footing with physical health. Two years later, the Affordable Care Act required small-group and individual health plans sold on the insurance marketplaces to cover mental health services and do that at levels comparable with medical services. (In 2016, parity rules were applied to Medicaid managed-care plans, which cover the majority of people in that federal-state health program for low-income residents.)
The laws have been partially successful. Insurers can no longer write policies that charge higher copays and deductibles for mental health care, nor can they set annual or lifetime limits on how much they will pay for it. But patient advocates say insurance companies still interpret mental health claims more stringently.
"Insurance companies can easily circumvent mental health parity mandates by imposing restrictive standards of medical necessity," said Meiram Bendat, a lawyer leading a class-action lawsuit against a mental health subsidiary of UnitedHealthcare.
In a closely watched ruling, a federal court in March sided with Bendat and patients alleging the insurer was deliberately shortchanging mental health claims. Chief Magistrate Judge Joseph Spero of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California ruled that United Behavioral Health wrote its guidelines for treatment much more narrowly than common medical standards, covering only enough to stabilize patients "while ignoring the effective treatment of members' underlying conditions."
UnitedHealthcare works to "ensure our products meet the needs of our members and comply with state and federal law," said spokeswoman Tracey Lempner.