This approach is quite common in Australia, England and Canada but it's faced an uphill battle in the United States.
A key obstacle, clinicians and policy analysts agree, is getting health insurers, whose systems aren't generally set up to cover hospital care provided in the home, to pay for it.
At Brigham Health, the hospital can charge an insurer for a physician house call, but the remainder of the hospital-at-home services are covered by grants and funding from Partners HealthCare's Center for Population Health, which is affiliated with Brigham Health, said Levine.
Health insurers don't have a position on hospital-at-home programs, said Cathryn Donaldson, a spokeswoman for America's Health Insurance Plans, an industry trade group.
"Overall, health insurance providers are committed to ensuring patients have access to care they need, and there are Medicare Advantage plans that do cover this type of at-home care," Donaldson said in a statement.
Levine, a clinician-investigator at Brigham and Women's Hospital and an instructor at Harvard Medical School, was the lead author of a study published last month that reported the results of a small, randomized, controlled trial comparing the health care use, experience and costs of Brigham patients who either received hospital-level care at home or in the hospital in 2016.
The 20 patients analyzed in the trial had one of several conditions, including infection, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma. The trial found that while there were no adverse events in the home-care patients, their treatment costs were significantly lower, about half that of patients treated in the hospital.
Why? For starters, labor costs for at-home patients are lower than for patients in a hospital, where staff must be on hand 24/7. Home-care patients also had fewer lab tests and visits from specialists.
The study found that both groups of patients were about equally satisfied with their care, but the home-care group was more physically active.
Brigham Health is conducting further randomized controlled trials to test the at-home model for a broader range of diagnoses.