Not long after the world learned that President Donald Trump had lost his reelection bid, states began issuing a new round of crackdowns and emergency declarations against the surging coronavirus.
Taking action this time were Republican governors who had resisted doing so during the spring and summer. Now they face an increasingly out-of-control virus and fading hope that help will come from a lame-duck president who seems consumed with challenging the election results.
President-elect Joe Biden has promised a more unified national effort once he takes office on Jan. 20, and pressure is building on Congress to pass a new financial relief package. But with record hospitalizations and new cases, many governors have decided they can't afford to wait.
"I don't know any governor who's sitting there waiting for the knight to come in on the horse," said Lanhee Chen, a fellow at the Hoover Institution and a former senior health official in President George W. Bush's administration. "There's no way for these guys to just sit and wait. The virus and the crisis is getting worse hour by hour, day by day."
As new measures trickle out across states, public health policy experts worry many don't go far enough. For those states attempting to impose meaningful restrictions, their success depends on cooperation from a population with pandemic fatigue. And people may be reluctant to curtail their holiday gatherings.
Residents of many conservative states don't acknowledge the depth of the health problem, especially given Trump and some of his allies have stressed the crisis is being overplayed and will end quickly.
The bottom line is that many people just aren't sufficiently scared of the virus to do what must be done to stop the spread, said Rodney Whitlock, a health policy consultant and former adviser to Sen. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa.
"You're dealing with folks there who definitely put liberty over everything else because they're not afraid enough," Whitlock said. "Even in the face of cases, even in the face of people around them getting it. They're just not afraid."
Among the first governors to act was outgoing Utah Gov. Gary Herbert. The day after The Associated Press called the presidential election for Biden on Nov. 7, the Republican announced Utah's first statewide mask mandate and clamped down on social gatherings and other activities until Nov. 23.
"All of us need to work together and see if there's a better way," Herbert said in a news conference.