In 1788, the first shipload of British convicts arrived in Australia. The establishment of an Australian prison colony was aimed at relieving overcrowding in British prisons.
In 1837, Michigan joined the United States as the 26th state.
In 1861, Louisiana seceded from the United States.
In 1875, the electric dental drill was patented by George Green of Kalamazoo, Mich.
In 1918, to promote food conservation during World War I, the U.S. government called for one meatless day, two wheatless days and two porkless days each week.
In 1949, the 200-inch Hal Telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California has first-light exposure.
In 1950, India ceased to be a British dominion and became the Republic of India, most populous democracy in the world.
In 1980, six Americans hidden for three months in the Canadian Embassy in Tehran were smuggled out of Iran by Canadian diplomats.
In 1988, The Phantom of the Opera opened on Broadway at the Majestic Theatre in New York.
In 1990, hurricane-force winds pounded the British Isles and much of Northern Europe, killing at least 92 people and knocking out power to nearly 1 million people.