In 1848, gold was discovered at John Sutter's mill near Sacramento, Calif. The discovery touched off the great gold rush of 1849.
In 1908, the first Boy Scout troop was organized in England by Robert Baden-Powell, a general in the British army.
In 1916, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that an income tax was unconstitutional.
In 1935, beer was sold in cans for the first time, in Richmond, Va.
In 1965, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill died at age 91.
In 1990, Soviet forces shelled merchant ships blockading the harbor in the Azerbaijani capital of Baku.
In 1991, Saudi jet fighters shot down the first enemy planes of the Persian Gulf War, while U.S. forces sank an Iraqi minesweeper and forced Iraqi troops off an island near Kuwait.
In 1993, retired U.S. Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American to serve on the nation's highest court, died of cardiac arrest at age 84.
Also in 1993, Thomas A. Dorsey, known as the father of gospel music for adding rhythm to church hymns, died at 93.
In 1999, the International Olympic Committee expelled six IOC members amid charges that money and other compensation had been accepted from officials whose cities were bidding to host the Games.