In 1777, American forces under Gen. George Washington were defeated by the British in a battle at Germantown, Pa.
In 1876, the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, now Texas A&M, opened. It was the first public higher education institution in Texas.
In 1883, the Orient Express train made its first run.
In 1890, Mormons in Utah renounced polygamy.
In 1895, the U.S. Open men's golf tournament is first contested. It was won by Horace Rawlins.
In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first man-made space satellite, Sputnik 1.
In 1965, Pope Paul VI arrived at Kennedy International Airport in New York on the first visit by a reigning pope to the United States.
In 1976, Earl Butz resigned as U.S. agriculture secretary with an apology for what he called the gross indiscretion of uttering a racist remark.
In 1989, Art Shell was hired by the Oakland Raiders as the first black head coach in the modern National Football League.
In 1991, the United States and 23 other countries signed an agreement banning mineral and oil exploration in Antarctica for 50 years.